Friday, July 17, 2020

How to Cope With a Personality Disorder

How to Cope With a Personality Disorder BPD Print How to Cope With a Personality Disorder Strategies for Feeling Your Best By Amy Morin, LCSW facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our editorial policy Amy Morin, LCSW Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on March 05, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 25, 2019  Caiaimage / Paul Bradbury / Getty Images More in BPD Diagnosis Treatment Living With BPD Related Conditions In This Article Table of Contents Expand Types Work Self-Care Relationships Health Parenting Treatment View All Back To Top Approximately 9 percent of the general population has a personality disorder. Despite the high prevalence, many individuals with personality disorders don’t know they have one, let alone understand how to cope with one. By definition, a personality disorder involves one or more pathological personality traits that create significant impairment in an individual’s life. The features must be stable across time and consistent across situations. Learning how to cope with a personality disorder is key to functioning at your best. With professional support, you can learn how to manage all aspects of your life. Types of Personality Disorders The DSM-5 recognizes 10 different personality disorders. And while each personality disorder involves different symptoms and treatments, there are some strategies that can help anyone living with a personality disorder cope better. Personality disorders are separated into three different Clusters or groups: Cluster A â€" Includes odd, bizarre, and eccentric behavior. Paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder are Cluster A disorders.Cluster B â€" Refers to dramatic and erratic personality disorders. Antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder are Cluster B disorders.Cluster C â€" Involves anxious and fearful personality disorders. Avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are Cluster C disorders. Work Solutions to maintaining a jobâ€"and working in an environment you enjoyâ€"depend on the type of personality disorder you have. For example, someone with narcissistic personality disorder may do well in a leadership position (at least in the short-term). Narcissistic personality disorder involves a grandiose view of oneselfâ€"something that may lend itself to being in charge. Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder may be viewed as tyrants by their colleagues which can cause long-term problems. By nature, they tend to lack empathy and may have little compassion for other employees. Someone with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder may struggle to be productive. Their perfectionism makes it difficult (if not impossible) to complete tasks. Some people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder may immerse themselves in work at the expense of friends and family. Know Yourself No matter which type of personality disorder you have, one of the keys to succeeding at work is to recognize your patterns. Do you have a history of losing your temper in the office? Do you struggle with productivity? Do you get fired after a couple of months or do you tend to quit jobs after only a few weeks? While recognizing workplace patterns won’t solve the problem, self-awareness can help you identify changes you want to make. In conjunction with a therapist, you may be able to identify strategies that prevent you from repeating the cycle. Another key to living your best life when you have a personality disorder is finding the right job.  Someone with avoidant personality disorder, for example, is likely to feel overwhelmed as a sales professional in a crowded office. But, that same individual may do well to work in a smaller environment with a few trusted colleagues. It’s also important to consider whether you should reveal your personality disorder to anyone in the workplace. There’s certainly a stigma attached to mental illness. But, notifying a hiring manager when you apply for a job could ensure that your employer will make reasonable accommodations for you. Self-Care The emotional pain associated with a personality disorder may cause you to turn to unhealthy coping skills for instant relief. Abusing drugs or alcohol, smoking, overeating, or self-harm are just a few of the strategies you might be tempted to turn to when you’re having a hard time. Individuals with Cluster B personality disorders are at a greater risk for suicide attempts. Feeling abandoned, being rejected, or experiencing a career-related crisis are some of the factors that may increase an individual’s suicide risk. A healthy self-care plan may reduce that risk. Some people with personality disorders struggle with basic self-care. They struggle to maintain their household and their health. They may require assistance to stay organized, manage their finances, and attend appointments. Some individuals with personality disorders do well for a time but then become dysregulated. Then, their symptoms and behaviors become increasingly disruptive. A healthy self-care plan can reduce some of the ups and downs. Why Self-Care Is So Important Relationships One of the hallmarks of a personality disorder is interpersonal problems. Each personality disorder presents a slightly different challenge when it comes to relationships. People with paranoid personality disorder have a pervasive distrust of others, including friends, family members, and partners. They’re constantly looking for clues that validate their fears that other people are out to get them. Consequently, people with paranoid personality disorder struggle to form and maintain relationships. People with histrionic personality disorder strive to be the center of attention. They depend on approval for others to feel OK. They take great care in their appearance and may seem insincere, superficial, overly charming, or inappropriately seductive. Their behavior can repel peopleâ€"which is very distressing to them. And the more rejected they feel, the more histrionic they may become. People with dependent personality disorder have an excessive need for help making everyday decisions. They often defer important life decisions to other people. They see themselves as helpless and have a major fear of loss of support or approval. They view other people as protective and more competent than they are. They can be easily victimized by people who take advantage of their neediness. Some people with personality disorders manage casual relationships quite well. But, close relationships can be quite difficult for them. Others, though, actually do best when they’re involved in close relationships. Being in a stable partnership, for example, may reduce symptoms. Establishing healthy relationships is often a goal of treatment for personality disorders. In order to reach those goals, people with personality disorders may need to learn new social skills, learn healthy ways to regulate their emotions, or improve their self-worth. It’s important for partners, parents, or adult children to be educated about an individual’s personality disorder. They may be invited to attend family therapy or may be encouraged to attend a support group. Health People with personality disorders are at a greater risk for health issues. They also have a reduced life expectancy. One study found that women with Cluster B disorders are more likely to experience syncope, seizures, and arthritis, Cluster A personality disorders are more likely to experience gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Cluster C are more likely to experience higher rates of recurrent headaches. Sleep Personality disorders have also been linked to sleep disturbance. Many individuals with personality disorders, especially borderline personality disorder, report worse sleep quality than other people. Some studies have found, however, that sleep disturbances in individuals with personality disorders are on par with other mental illnesses, such as anxiety and depression. Pain Individuals with chronic pain are more likely to screen positive for antisocial or borderline personality traits. Individuals with borderline personality disorder report more chronic back/neck problems, headaches, fibromyalgia, visceral pain, and higher pain severity. Obesity Personality disorders have also been linked to obesity. Although people with any psychiatric disorder have greater odds of being overweight, individuals with personality disorders were more likely to be obese. Higher rates of personality disorders are seen among obese patients referred for bariatric surgery. In one study, adolescents diagnosed with any personality disorder were 1.84 times more likely to be obese 17 years later, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. It’s important to take care of your physical health to live your best life. Attend appointments with your physician and follow medical advice. Having a supportive friend, family member, or case manager who can help you navigate the healthcare system can be helpful if you struggle to follow medical advice. Parenting A parent with a personality disorder can be very loving, warm, and nurturing. But, that same parent may face some special child-rearing challenges. A 2015 study that examined mothers with borderline personality disorder and their children found that the mothers with infants had less sensitivity toward their children and more difficulty identifying their child’s emotional state. They tended to be overprotective of older children. The children of mothers with borderline personality disorder had poorer mental health compared to other children. A 2017 study found that individuals scoring high in narcissism were likely to express little empathy toward their children. Additionally, they were unresponsive to their children’s needs and likely to be overly authoritarian or permissive with their children. If you have a personality disorder, you might benefit from therapy that targets your specific parenting needs. For example, a parent with narcissistic personality disorder may need to learn how to empathize with their children. Or, a parent with borderline personality disorder may benefit from learning how to improve their own emotion regulation skills. A parenting group, in-home parenting coach, or family therapy may also be options to help you become the best parent you can. Work With a Treatment Team There’s a common misconception that people with personality disorders don’t get better. But, treatment for many personality disorders can be quite effectiveâ€"although it’s often intensive. Many people with personality disorders also have other mental health conditions, like depression,  anxiety, and eating disorders. Studies show 42 percent of people with Cluster A personality disorders, 83 percent of people with Cluster B personality disorders, and 50 percent of people with Cluster C personality disorders have comorbid conditions. Studies also estimate 50 percent of individuals with personality disorders have substance use disorders, meaning they may abuse alcohol or be dependent on drugs. Treatment may involve simultaneously treating the substance use as well as the personality disorder. Or, an individual may need treatment for anxiety for while also undergoing treatment for the personality disorder. Therapy Treatment needs depend on the type of personality disorder a person has. But, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common treatment strategy. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a derivative of CBT and it’s been found to be very effective in treating borderline personality disorder. It focuses on teaching individual’s specific mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skills. Traditional DBT treatment goes beyond one hour per week of therapy. It usually includes: Weekly individual therapy sessions to focus on managing crises and addressing how to create a life worth living.A two hour weekly skills training group. Members learn and practice specific skills each week and often, they’re assigned homework to help them begin implementing the skills in their everyday lives.Access to a phone number where a therapist can be reached 24 hours a day to help manage any crises. A therapist who is following the traditional DBT model is likely to have weekly access to a consultant to address any problems, questions, or motivational issues that are arising in treatment. Get Treatment With the 9 Best Online Therapy Programs DBT may be used as part of treatment for other personality disorders as well. But it’s important to follow the advice of your treatment providers. You may be referred for psychological testing if a provider wants more information about your diagnosis, strengths, or weaknesses. Or, you may be referred to a psychiatrist if medication might be helpful. Some people with personality disorders benefit from case management. A case manager may offer services like arranging for transportation, making referrals to community resources, or organizing your calendar. Depending on your treatment needs, family members may be invited to be part of your treatment. It may be important for them to learn more about your personality disorder and how it affects you. How to Find a Therapist Thats Right for You

Thursday, May 21, 2020

As A Society, We Are Being Continuously Taught Not To Stray

As a society, we are being continuously taught not to stray too far from tradition and from what previous generations have proven to follow. This insinuates the idea that we, as individuals, should follow tradition that includes stereotypical gender roles that existed. Throughout Euripides’ Medea, the audience and readers are shown the consequences that said gender roles create. They are a part of history that may never be overcome, as developed in the play. Gender roles may never be overcome in society, nevertheless it is important to remember that they do not define a person, let alone decide their fortune. Equality should not be perceived as an opinion, but as a right. By performing a feminist reading of Medea, it is evident that the†¦show more content†¦He tells Socrates that his wife came to him at fifteen, already knowing how to spin yarn, sew clothes, and cook. This shows that these were the sole expectations of women; they were not supposed to be smart or be able to work. Medea always does what she thinks is correct, which is a good mindset to have as it shows true independence. Through showing this quality in Medea, Euripides reinforces this quality that many people should possess. Euripides develops the idea that no matter what gender a person is, they can still be the protagonist of their own story and be confident in their decisions. This may have been slightly extreme on Medea’s part as it made her inevitably sad, although, she proved herself as slightly more â€Å"masculine†, as she did not exhibit the typical â€Å"feminine† hysteria. Even though she got her vengeance on Jason and did so independently, she still lost the most important thing in her life, her children. In some ways, Medea ultimately became the only person controlling her own destiny because she had reached her goal of getting vengeance, or in her own twisted sense, justice on Jason for what he did to her. â€Å"What point is there in living anymore?†(Euripides line 169), questions Medea, showing how much pain she was in, as well as the possibility that she feels as though she must be with a man to survive. This thinking creates the idea that to beShow MoreRelate dThe King of the Savannah is Becoming Extinct951 Words   |  4 PagesLions of certain ages help ensure that the African lion can continue breeding. There are so many different options but there are the fantastic three that have the best chance of saving these majestic creatures of the Sahara. Instead of small fences, we can start raising money to create a large reserve so that the lions can roam freely and comfortably as they please to. The African Lions would be far away from any harmful human contact. And another way that would benefit the lions, is the basic educationRead MoreAbstract. The Purpose Of This Paper Is To Explore My Personal1572 Words   |  7 Pageson what rules I live by in both my personal and professional life. Additionally, I will be given a corporate example of conflict and give a proposal on how to handle that conflict according to the rules given by Carl Sagan. Are the rules we live by the rules we live by utilized in our professional life? It is important to know that each person has their own set of beliefs and to understand where these beliefs and behaviors come from. Through careful thought and consideration I will stick to the goldenRead MoreIndividualism And Individuality In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World1546 Words   |  7 Pagestrue that is. We learn from a young age that it is better to fit in than stand out and that if one does stand out they will be ridiculed and teased into conforming. Our society stifles individuality and hides how they truly feel in order to fit in. Not only that, but we tend to stifle emotions in our society just as much as individualism. We refuse to create actual bonds with one another, never truly opening up to others and to the possibilities of love and pain. There is a similar society presentedRead MoreThe Impact Of Cultural Dimensions On Business Transactions, Negotiations, And Managerial Positions1695 Words   |  7 Pagesas a member of society†; whereas, Hofstede describes culture as â⠂¬Å"the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one human group from another† (Adeyemi-Bello Lawrence, 2013, p. 717). One could than claim that culture is molded by perceptions which are shaped by our cognitive abilities. Perceiving is an active process that involves selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities (Wood, 2014, p. 44). The way we perceive somethingRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects On Children3537 Words   |  15 Pagesunderstand that as a nation we have been battling our own obesity epidemic on a super sized scale. We are continuously reminded of the physical consequences of obesity but not much coverage has raised awareness to the psychological outcomes. It has always been declared that the future of our nation lies in the hands of its children. They are the dreamers and the doers. The future depends greatly on the ideals and habits of its youth. So it is only logical that we continuously ensure both the health andRead MoreMy Personal Journey On Social Work8705 Words   |  35 Pagesto save up money so I could pay for my next two years of schooling. I decided to apply to schools of social work because I was really interested in my courses that were related to child development and behaviours, interactions between people and society, social inequality and justice, and human rights, which are all relevant to social work. I decided to pursue my social work degree at the School of Social Work at Dalhousie University because of its close proximity to where I live already, in BedfordRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain3807 Words   |  16 PagesRacism still exists in some forms of modern society today. Racism encompasses the beliefs that â€Å"inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or independent achievement† along with the belief that one race is inferior to another ( Mark Twain bases a large amount of conflict off of racism in his novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain reveals the significant differences between Read MoreEntrepreneurship4409 Words   |  18 Pageschoosing what you have to do in life. The vast majority of human beings direct their activities towards earning a living, generating wealth and improving their standard of living. You can choose your career from two broad categories of options – Wage Employment or Entrepreneurship. The term ‘career’ signifies a continuous, ever evolving, ever expanding opportunity for personal as well as business growth and development. We may define entrepreneurship as a career in your own businessRead MoreModern Gadgets Implications to Teenagers6102 Words   |  25 PagesDealing With the Impact of Modern Gadgets on our Lives Whether we like it or not, electric appliances and gadgets have occupied a major position in our day to day lives. Though they were invented to make life better for us in the first place, it is an undeniable fact that many of the gadgets have a negative influence upon the quality of our lives in some ways. As we cannot live without them in this modern world and they are a necessary evil, we have to find ways to reduce the negative impact of those modernRead MoreAppearance Discrimination in Employment22039 Words   |  89 Pagesmanagement commentary regarding appearance discrimination. The authors’ scrutiny exclusively focus upon employees being negatively impacted in the workplace due to their perceived â€Å"unattractiveness,† rather than the â€Å"reverse appearance discrimination† perspective, which was alleged in  Lorenzana v. Citigroup Inc  (2010)  by a former Citibank employee claiming that she was terminated for being â€Å"too hot† according to her filed complaint. Following this introduction section, the authors first provide some

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Synthesis of Aspirin - 5275 Words

The Synthesis of Aspirin Chemistry Standard Level Lab Report Data Collection and Processing and Conclusion and Evaluation Date: December 8th, 2011 Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to synthesize aspirin, determine the theoretical yield, compare the percent yield to the theoretical yield and test the purity of aspirin by adding Iron (III) chloride to the product. Hypothesis: I hypothesize that salicylic acid will react with acetic anhydride to produce acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and acetic acid (vinegar). Variables: Independent and controlled variables: The amount of sulfuric acid used for catalysis and the amount of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. Dependent variables: Theoretical and actual yield of†¦show more content†¦The aspirin crystals were washed by pouring 10 mL of water over them through the funnel. The filter paper, holding the aspirin crystals, was removed from the funnel and was left to dry before being weighed. Once the aspirin crystals were weighed, the theoretical yield and the percent yield of the experiment were calculated. The procedure was repeated once more using the same steps. Procedure for the test of purity of aspirin: 0.1 gram of salicylic acid was weighed in a tray and was then added to a test tube containing 2.0 mL of Iron (III) chloride, which was measured using a 10 mL graduated cylinder, to test for phenols. 0.1 gram of commercial aspirin was weighed in a tray and was then added to a second test tube containing 2.0 mL of Iron (III) chloride, which was measured using a 10 mL graduated cylinder, to test for phenols. This was repeated once more to validate results. 0.1 gram of my product from the first trial was weighed in a tray and was then added to a third test tube containing 2.0 mL of Iron (III) chloride, which was measured using a 10 mL graduated cylinder, to test for phenols. This was repeated once more to validate results. 0.1 gram of my product from the second trial was weighed in a tray and was then added to a fourth test tube containing 2.0 mL of Iron (III) chloride, which was measured using a 10 mL graduated cylinder, to test forShow MoreRelatedSynthesis Of Aspirin Synthesis825 Words   |  4 PagesSynthesis of Aspirin Erin Chase Arellano CHEM 12A ABSTRACT Acetylsalicylic or most commonly known as Aspirin is made through a combination of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. It is use to relieve mild to moderate pain such as muscle pain, headaches and common cold and reduce fever. The objective of this experiment was to synthesize aspirin from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The purity of aspirin was tested using the ferric chloride test and % yield was also calculated. Below drawingRead MoreSynthesis of Aspirin1618 Words   |  7 Pagesobjective was to convert a specific amount of salicylic acid into the same amount of aspirin that was high in purity. Furthermore, the other objectives were to enable students to conduct the synthesis of aspirin, reinforce skills or recrystallisation and the technique of melting point determination. The amount of each compound should be the same because there is a 1:1 ratio between them. The purity of the synthesized aspirin was measured by determining its melting point and percent yield. Soluble impuritiesRead MoreExperiment : Synthesis Of Aspirin1147 Words   |  5 PagesOctober 6th, 2014 Experiment 5: Synthesis of Aspirin Abstract: In today’s experiment, aspirin was synthesized using salicylic acid, acetic anhydride, a catalyst (concentrated sulfuric acid), and water. The main goal of this experiment was to synthesize pure aspirin. Another goal was to test aspirin’s purity by running a TLC and getting a melting point test done. Also, calculations of the theoretical yield and percent yield were done. 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Faculty of Engineering University of Santo Tomas Manila, Philippines ABSTRACT This experiment involved three steps: synthesis of aspirin, isolation and purification, and the estimation of purity of the final product. The synthesis involved the reaction of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst, phosphoric acid, H3PO4. When the aspirin was prepared, it was isolated and filtered. The percentageRead MoreThe Theory Of Green Chemistry On Microwave Heating Essay1532 Words   |  7 PagesObjective The current experiment introduces the concept of green chemistry on microwave heating to synthesise aspirin, instead of using conventional heating methods. Introduction Aspirin synthesis is a popular experiment undertaken in most organic chemistry teaching laboratories (Montes et al., 2006). Most experimental procedures for aspirin synthesis are undertaken to study the carbonyl nucleophilic substitution reactions either under basic or acidic conditions (Polshettiwar and Varma, 2008; VarmaRead MoreThe Synthesis Of A Medicinal Agent Essay938 Words   |  4 PagesThe Synthesis of a Medicinal Agent – Aspirin IDC 3002H – EMWH Dylan Chow 9/14/2016 Abstract: In this experiment, aspirin was synthesized from a reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. Acetic anhydride was added to salicylic acid to create a solution and phosphoric acid was added to catalyze the reaction. After the salicylic acid was fully dissolved in a boiling water bath, water would be added to decompose the remaining acetic anhydride. Through the process of filtration, aspirin

Current Climate and the Need for MTSS Free Essays

Introduction/Current Climate and the Need for MTSS At this point in clip, pedagogues in our state are accountable for increasing pupil accomplishment more than they have at any old clip ( Guilfoyle, 2006 ) . Educators in America are confronted with increasing outlooks from national and province criterions along with an progressively diverse pupil base that challenge traditional manners of instruction and acquisition. In add-on to increasing criterions, answerability and a diverse pupil population, pedagogues are faced with behavioural issues that detract from quality schoolroom direction clip ( Public Agenda, 2004 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Current Climate and the Need for MTSS or any similar topic only for you Order Now The research conducted by Public Agenda ( 2004 ) stated that â€Å"of the 725 center and high school instructors surveyed, 97 % confirmed that good subject and behaviour are necessary for a school to boom. The survey reported that â€Å"77 % of instructors felt that their instruction would be better if riotous behaviours did non necessitate so much of their time† ( Public Agenda, 2004 ) . Additionally, schools are losing pupils in the passage between in-between school and high school with first-year academic rates on the diminution. Research from McIntosh and associates ( 2008 ) implied that Grade 9 academic public presentation was strongly connected to Rate 8 behavioural informations while â€Å"Grade 9 behaviour was predictable given Grade 8 academic performance† . Behavioral breaks in the schoolroom detract from direction clip, and that reduced clip finally affects academic public presentation. Logically, the clip that pupils miss finally antagonistic pupil advance ment toward graduation, which increases high school dropout rates ( McIntosh, Flannery, Sugai, Braun, A ; Cochrane, 2008 ) . Traditional manners of instruction that are more â€Å"reactive† than â€Å"proactive† no longer run into the demands of pupils, as schools face the conflict of increased examination and effort to non fall farther behind globally in faculty members. At Ottawa ( Kansas ) High School entirely, 91 out of the 174 pupils in the current eighth-grade category have been identified as necessitating extra academic intercession in respects to reading ( J. Blome, personal communicating, November 28, 2011 ) . Professionals who are used to learning in isolation are now being exposed to a more incorporate mentality in respects to information. Schmoker ( 2006 ) states that â€Å"Historically, schools have worked in silos where instructors provide direction independent from other professionals in the building.† These â€Å"silos† , in bend, traditionally cause pedagogues to group pupils with demands into wide â€Å"categories† such as particular instruction, gifted etc. ( Harlacher A ; Siler, 2011 ) . However, by grouping pupils into wide classs, single demands of pupils can be glossed over by these wide generalisations. The current clime demands that pedagogues meet the demands of all pupils by developing proactive intercessions at a systematic degree, instead than being reactive and puting our pupils in wide groups that do non run into their single demands. The clip is now in respects to â€Å"supporting kids both academically and behaviorally in order to enable them to make their full potency ( Horner et. al. , 2005 ) . In order to accomplish that end, school territories are get downing to implement â€Å"response-to-intervention† schemes, or in the province of Kansas, Multi-Tiered Systems ( MTSS ) of support. MTSS can be used district-wide, from Kindergarten to the 12Thursdayclass. For a focussed attempt, the undermentioned paper will specify and explicate the procedure of MTSS execution at the high school ( 9-12 ) degree with an accent in MTSS reading execution while supplying illustrations from Ottawa High School. Specifying MTSS, Its Purpose and Goals MTSS derives from a signifier of â€Å"Response-to-Intervention† ( RTI ) . Batche et al. , ( 2005 ) and Fuchs A ; Fuchs ( 2006 ) province that â€Å"RTI refers to the pattern of supplying high-quality, multi-tier direction and intercessions matched to students’ demands, supervising pupil advancement often, and measuring informations on pupil advancement to find the demand for particular instruction support† ( as cited in Averill and Rinaldi, September, 2011 ) . Basically, MTSS provides a systematic attack to reading, math and behavioural intercessions by utilizing research-based direction to all pupils within a school. The Kansas Department of Education ( 2011 ) defines MTSS as â€Å"a coherent continuum of evidence-based, system broad patterns to back up a rapid response to academic and behavioural needs.† The theoretical account is non an accreditation plan ; instead, it is a school betterment system that sets out to supply bar, support and early interc ession for all pupils within a school and territory. It can be adapted to a assortment of school accreditation plans from Quality Performance Accreditation ( QPA to the North Central Accreditation ( NCA ) . The school betterment program acts as an â€Å"overarching model that guides schools through a procedure of demands assessment and determination devising that assists in non merely choosing effectual patterns, but besides in making a sustainable aligned system† ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . The end of MTSS is to guarantee that every kid can be successful utilizing the resources from schools ( Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports, 2011 ) . School territories besides do non necessitate to supply extra resources or add-ons to current patterns, but instead it identifies bing plans within the school environment. From at that place, MTSS â€Å"practices to place those that yield grounds of effectivity, turn toing countries that are losing, and replacing uneffective or inefficient attacks with those that are supported by research† ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . The ends of MTSS are besides accomplished by the followers: being bar oriented to supply support every bit early as possible each school twelvemonth and providing said supports ; using evidence-based intercessions for all pupils ; and utilizing informations to measure advancement and devising alterations when needed ( Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports, 2011 ) . Model of MTSS-Tiered Learning As mentioned, MTSS wants to guarantee success for all pupils by utilizing a assortment of schemes from within the school. In respects to academic and behavioural direction, MTSS provides â€Å"tiers† of aid for pupils. Tier 1 aid focal points on supplying criterions and evidenced-based direction to all pupils within the school ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . At Ottawa High School, the current program for academic focal point is reading intercession execution by the following school twelvemonth. The program is in its babyhood, but disposal and the MTSS squad has identified two chief constituents within reading: comprehension and vocabulary. For illustration, the squad is entertaining the thought of implementing a system-wide vocabulary scheme within the school: LINCS ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . The scheme uses ocular imagination, anterior cognition and key-word mnemotechnic devices to make survey cards to help pupils in vocabulary and co mprehension ( LINCS Vocabulary Strategy, 2011 ) . All schoolrooms utilize vocabulary in one signifier or the other and a consistent, systematic attack from all instructors can help all pupils within Ottawa High School to heighten vocabulary development ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . Tier 2 aid occurs when instructors come across the inquiry, â€Å"‘what are we prepared to make when they do non larn? ’† Essentially, pupils who are non run intoing success in Tier I intercessions are identified through advancement monitoring and referred to Tier 2 intercession. Tier 2 intercessions involve predetermined extra intercessions and schemes based off of the specific accomplishment sets that pupils need to accomplish ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . For illustration, if pupils are identified as holding troubles with phonic consciousness for reading, they are placed on Tier 2 intercession and will have extra day-to-day support to help them with that accomplishment. At the high school degree, pupils are to have an excess 30 proceedingss of nucleus direction in little homogenous groups. Groups sizes at Tier 2 pupils range from four-to-six pupils ( Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports†¦Reading, 2011 ) . Ottawa High School plans on accommodat ing its logistics to suit the demands of MTSS Reading Implementation. The program is to implement a seven hr twenty-four hours with each hr at 53-minute increases. A 30-minute day-to-day intercession period will be implemented for Tier 2 intercessions. Teachers identified as adept instructors will be approached to help the school with these reading intercessions, irrespective of content ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . Finally, Tier 3 aid occurs when pupils need extra support beyond the aid of Tier 2 intercession. While Tier 2 intercessions have standard intercession protocols for specific demands for pupils, Tier 3 aid becomes even more individualised as â€Å"the student’s instructors, counsellor, and parents consistently determine the issues that need to be addressed for the student† ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . Group sizes in Tier 3 intercessions range from one-to-three pupils and include frequent advancement monitoring to go on to drive evidence-based direction ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . Execution of Reading Practices of MTSS at the High School Level As stated, MTSS does non a stiff, fixed clip construction for execution. School territories can set the clip frame harmonizing to territory single demands. The procedure for execution can take from two old ages up to four old ages and is non precisely â€Å"linear† as the rhythm is cyclical, with uninterrupted betterment with module and pupils ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . Fixsen et. Al. ( 2005 ) province phases of execution as the followers: geographic expedition and acceptance ( the consideration that alteration is needed along with possible intercessions ) ; plan installing ( placing specific schemes to be used and taking resources to utilize said patterns ) ; initial execution ( first utilizations of MTSS patterns by staff ) , full execution ( at this point, skilled usage of patterns are used ) ; and eventually, sustainability, which is the consistent skilled usage of patterns as a everyday portion of the school twenty-four hours ( as cited in Kansas Departmen t of Education, 2011 ) . Presently, Ottawa High School is in the latter phases of the exploration/adoption phase. The program is for the school to come in the plan installing phase by early 2nd semester ( J. Blome, personal communicating, November 29, 2011 ) . Based off of demands of the school through research ( MAPP Assessments, Kansas Reading Assessments, figure of Fs in the school ) , disposal at Ottawa High School has targeted reading execution as the initial phase of MTSS. School leaders chose following year’s incoming first-year category ( this year’s current 8th class category ) as the first category to have MTSS reading execution. Administration decided to utilize one category following twelvemonth ( the fresher category ) as a â€Å"pilot† to implement MTSS, larning from strengths of the betterment program and leting for accommodations in schemes, protocols etc. After following twelvemonth, disposal programs to implement MTSS reading intercession school broad at Ottawa High Sch ool. MTSS is traveling to be implemented at the simple and middle-school degrees as good ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . As mentioned, MTSS is a territory and school-wide enterprise ; hence, all pupils in a high school receive MTSS Tier1 direction. In order to place pupils for MTSS Tier 2 and 3 intercessions for classs 9-12, all pupils must foremost take a cosmopolitan screener. The cosmopolitan screener determines if pupils are reading at grade degree. Universal screeners that can be used for initial appraisal include the MAP, NWEA, GRADE assessments etc. From at that place, pupils who do non run into grade degree are so given a curriculum-based measuring ( CBM ) provides information about specific reading accomplishment sets ( phonic consciousness, comprehension, vocabulary etc. ) from pupils that need betterment. CBMs that can be used in schools include the DIBELS or AIMSweb measuring. Finally, diagnostic procedures and appraisals that include phonics awareness screeners, formal appraisals, and phonological consciousness screeners are used to prove the students’ accomplishments and cognition ( Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports Required Practices, 2011 ) . Students receive the differentiated and single direction based off of the Tier schemes discussed before in this paper ( see â€Å"Framework of MTSS-Tiered Learning† ) . In its current geographic expedition and acceptance phase, Ottawa High School is be aftering on utilizing the MAP appraisal as the territory universal screener for pupils. The MAP appraisal determines the lexile or reading degree of pupils. The appraisal will be given to the first-year category at the beginning of the 2012-13 school twelvemonth. Students who do non run into the 9th class reading degree will be identified as necessitating Tier 2 or 3 intercession. Currently, disposal has isolated the AIMSweb as the CBM that is to be used as the advancement monitoring appraisal in the school. Administration is presently weighing options on direction possibilities for Tier 2 and 3 intercessions. As mentioned, the school is be aftering on utilizing the LINCS vocabulary as a school-wide vocabulary option ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . Students are non needfully â€Å"stuck† in Tiers in MTSS. The end of MTSS is to guarantee the academic and behavioural success of every pupil, and the intercession Sessionss are to be intensive, dynamic personal businesss to supply aid when needed. The end of Ottawa High School is to acquire pupils from Tier 3 to Tier 2 and theoretically Tier 1 degrees. The end for Tier 1 pupils is to acquire their peculiar accomplishment deficiencies back to the Tier 1 degree. Once pupils have reached Tier 1 degrees, the intercessions end, although follow-up cheques and appraisals can be used ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . Guaranting the Success of Multi-System of Supports As a systematic, school-wide betterment enterprise, MTSS should non be viewed as â€Å"another manner to place pupils for particular instruction or every bit merely another manner to place pupils for particular instruction or as one department’s responsibility† ( Harlacher A ; Siler, 2011 ) . MTSS is a alteration in the manner pedagogues approach pupils and pupil acquisition. As antecedently stated, instructors are no longer isolated in their single â€Å"silos† in the MTSS theoretical account. The attack encourages faculty-wide aid and buy-in to guarantee its success. MTSS and other theoretical accounts of RTI â€Å"is viewed as a comprehensive, embedded procedure that involves the engagement and coaction of every individual in the building† ( Hughes A ; Dexter, n.d. ) . Teachers can go progressively defeated or apathetic about MTSS and RTI if they merely go through the gestures and do non per se believe in the motion. Ikeda et. Al. ( 2007 ) province th at â€Å"although some schools implemented patterns associated with RTI good, they did non incorporate the belief system associated with it.† Ultimately, the pedagogues must retrieve this chief mantra: pedagogues must retrieve what is best for the pupils. If the traditional manners of instruction and school betterment are non assisting our pupils win, pedagogues must set aside their comfort degrees and buy-in to the MTSS theoretical account if their territories decide to implement it. Harlacher and Siler ( 2011 ) province that â€Å"†¦part of the buy-in procedure should include an apprehension that extra support is provided earlier, is more targeted to students’ demand compared to old theoretical accounts of service bringing, and that the end of any intercession or instructional scheme is to rectify the identified problem†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Besides, MTSS and RTI are non â€Å"fixed models† as schools can accommodate the theoretical account contextually to run into their demands. The theoretical account does include extra attempt and work from instructors, but it does non necessitate instructors and territories to hold to develop extra resources in order to do it win. The intercessions and instructional schemes required with MTSS are provided by already bing resources within the territory. ( R. Cobbs, personal communicating, November 30, 2011 ) . For illustration, communicating between disposal and module can help pupils if there are structural alterations of MTSS reading execution within a school. Administration and module can place if group sizes need to be adjusted ; altering the frequence of progress-monitoring appraisals ; increasing instructional clip for Tier 2 or 3 degrees of support and altering the course of study ( Mercier Smith et. al. , 2009 ) . Finally, in order to make a sustainable clime of civilization for MTSS execution, important leading and a clear focal point of vision is required. The undermentioned non-negotiable points are required to farther guarantee success of MTSS: a territory leading squad if MTSS is territory driven ; active engagement of edifice decision makers in the territory leading squad ; members from the territory leading squad demand to hold authorization over territory direction and appraisals ; lucidity that MTSS is being implemented to help all pupils ; and execution of MTSS in all content countries must be supported by all school staff members ( Kansas Department of Education, 2011 ) . Decision Changing times in society require alteration in the educational system. For many pupils, traditional signifiers of instruction and traditional school betterment programs do non run into the demands of the diverse manners of acquisition of today’s pupils. If pupils are to truly â€Å"not be left behind† , they need a school betterment program that enables every kid to larn by placing the demands of each pupil. MTSS, through system-wide direction, intercession and aid, provides that single support that every pupil deserves in our schools today. How to cite Current Climate and the Need for MTSS, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Isotopes, sub-atomic particles and relative atomic mass free essay sample

Isotopes, sub-atomic particles and relative atomic mass Sub-atomic particles A subatomic particle Is a particle smaller than an atom: It may be elementary or composite. In 1905, Albert Einstein demonstrated the physical reality of the photons, hypothesized by Max Planck in 1900, in order to solve the problem of black body radiation In thermodynamics. In 1874, G. Johnstone Stoney postulated a rnlnlmum unit of electrical charge, for which he suggested the name electron in 1891. In 1897, J. J. Thomson confirmed Stoneys conjecture by discovering the first subatomic particle, the electron (now denoted e-). Subsequent speculation about the structure of atoms was severely constrained by Ernest Rutherfords 1907 gold foll experiment, showing that the atom is mainly empty space, with almost all its mass concentrated in a (relatively) tiny atomic nucleus. The development of the quantum theory led to the understanding of chemistry in terms of the arrangement of electrons in the mostly empty volume of atoms. We will write a custom essay sample on Isotopes, sub-atomic particles and relative atomic mass or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Particle physics and nuclear physics concern themselves with the study of these particles, their interactions, and matter made up of them which do not aggregate Into atoms. These particles include atomic constituents such s electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are actually composite particles, made up of quarks), as well as other particles such as photons and neutrinos which are produced copiously In the sun. However, most of the particles that have been discovered and studied are not encountered under normal earth conditions; they are produced in cosmic rays and during scattering processes in particle accelerators. Isotopes Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others In its number of neutrons. Radioactive isotopes The existence of isotopes was first suggested in 1912 by the radiochemist Frederick Soddy, based on studies of radioactive decay chains which indicated about 40 1 OF3 ditterent species described as radioelements (i. e. radioactive elements) between uranium and lead, although the periodic table only allowed for 1 1 elements from uranium to lead. Several attempts to separate these new radioelements chemically had failed. For example, Soddy had shown in 1910 that mesothorium (later shown to be Ra-228), radium (Ra-226, the longest-lived isotope), and thorium X (Ra-224) are impossible to separate. Attempts to place the radioelements in the periodic table led Soddy and Kazimierz FaJans independently to propose their radioactive in 1913, to the effect that alpha decay produced an element two places to the left in the periodic table, while beta decay emission produced an element one place to the right. Soddy recognized that emission of an alpha particle followed by two beta particles led to the formation of an element chemically identical to the initial element but with a mass four units lighter and with different radioactive properties. Soddy proposed that several types of atoms (differing in radioactive properties) could occupy the ame place in the table. For example, the alpha-decay of uranium-235 forms thorium-231 , while the beta decay of actinium-230 forms thorium-230 The term isotope, Greek for at the same place, was suggested to Soddy by Margaret Todd, a Scottish physician and family friend, during a conversation in which he explained his ideas to her. In 1914 T. W. Richards found variations between the atomic weight of lead from different mineral sources, attributable to variations in isotopic composition due to different radioactive origins Stable isotopes The first evidence for isotopes of a stable (non-radioactive) element was found by J. J. Thomson in 1913 as part of his exploration into the composition of canal (positive ions). Thomson channelled streams of neon ions through a magnetic and an electric field and measured their deflection by placing a photographic plate in their path. Each stream created a glowing patch on the plate at the point it struck. Thomson observed two separate patches of light on the photographic plate (see image), which suggested two different parabolas of deflection. Thomson eventually concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas were of higher mass than the rest. F. W. Aston subsequently discovered different stable isotopes for numerous elements sing a mass spectrograph. In 1919 Aston studied neon with sufficient resolution to show that the two isotopic masses are very close to the integers 20 and 22, and that neither is equal to the known molar mass (20. 2) of neon gas. This is an example of Astons whole number rule for isotopic masses, which states that large deviations of elemental molar masses from integers are primarily due to the fact that the element is a mixture of isotopes. Aston similarly showed that the molar mass of chlorine (35. 45) is a weighted average of the almost integral masses for the two isotopes Cl-35 and Cl-37. Relative atomic mass An atomic weight (relative atomic mass) of an element from a specified source is the ratio of the average mass per atom of the element to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of 12C The relative masses of atoms are measured using an instrument called a mass spectrometer, invented by the English physicist Francis William Aston (1877-1945) when ne was working in Cambridge wit J J. Thomson. It was in his use ot this instrument that the existence of isotopes of elements was discovered. Aston eventually discovered many of the naturally occurring isotopes of non-radioactive elements. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1922. Briefly, the mass pectrometer works by bombarding gaseous atoms with fast-moving electrons which knock out an electron from the atom. The cations formed are brought down on to a detector in turn according to their mass. The instrument provides a measure of the relative mass (compared to 12C) and the relative number of each isotope. The diagrams below represent the mass spectrum of naturally occurring chlorine. The above right spectrum has been represented so that the most abundant isotope has a relative abundance of 100%, with the other mass peaks scaled in relation to this. The relative atomic mass of chlorine is now calculated as shown below:

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Italianate Homes, Romantic and Picturesque

Italianate Homes, Romantic and Picturesque Of all the homes built in the United States during the Victorian era, the romantic Italianate style became the most popular for a short period of time. With their nearly-flat roofs, wide eaves, and massive brackets, these homes suggested the romantic villas of Renaissance Italy. The Italianate style is also known as Tuscan, Lombard, or bracketed. Italianate and the Picturesque Movement The historical roots of Italianate styles are in Italian Renaissance architecture. Some of the first Italian villas were designed by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio in the 16th century. Palladio reinvented Classical architecture, melding the designs of a Roman temple into residential architecture. By the 19th century, English-speaking architects were reinventing Roman designs yet again, capturing the flavor of what they imagined to be the Italian villa look. The Italianate style began in England with the picturesque movement. For centuries English homes tended to be formal and classical in style. Neoclassical architecture was orderly and proportioned.  With the picturesque movement, however, the landscape gained importance. Architecture not only became integral to its surroundings, but also became a vehicle for experiencing the natural world and surrounding gardens. The pattern books of British-born landscape architect Calvert Vaux (1824-1895) and the American Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852) brought this concept to an American audience. Especially popular was A. J. Downings 1842 book Rural Cottages and Cottage-Villas and their Gardens and Grounds Adapted to North America. American architects and builders such as  Henry Austin (1804-1891) and Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-1892) began to design fanciful recreations of Italian Renaissance villas. Architects copied and reinterpreted the style for buildings in the United States, making Italianate architecture in the U.S. uniquely American in style. One of the finest examples of late Victorian Italianate architecture is owned by the National Park Service. The John Muir National Historic Site in Martinez, California lays claim to the 17-room John Muir Mansion, built in 1882, and inherited by the famous American naturalist. Queen Victoria ruled England for a long, long time - from 1837 until her death in 1901 - so Victorian architecture is more a time frame than a specific style. During the Victorian era, emerging styles captured a large audience by the widely-published house pattern books packed with building plans and home building advice. Prominent designers and illustrators published many plans for Italianate and Gothic Revival style homes. By the late 1860s, the fashion had swept through North America. Why Builders Loved the Italianate Style Italianate architecture knew no class boundaries. The high square towers made the style a natural choice for upscale homes of the newly rich. However the brackets and other architecture details, made affordable by new methods for machine production, were easily applied to simple cottages. Historians say that Italianate became the favored style for two reasons: (1) Italianate homes could be constructed with many different building materials, and the style could be adapted to modest budgets; and (2) new technologies of the Victorian era made it possible to quickly and affordably produce cast-iron and press-metal decorations. Many 19th century commercial buildings, including urban rooming houses, were constructed with this practical yet elegant design. Italianate remained the preferred house style in the U.S. until the 1870s, when the Civil War curbed the progress of construction. Italianate was also a common style for modest structures like barns and for larger public buildings such as town halls, libraries, and train stations. You will find Italianate buildings in nearly every part of the United States except for the deep South. There are fewer Italianate buildings in the southern states because the style reached its peak during the Civil War, a time when the south was economically devastated. Italianate was an early form of Victorian architecture. After the 1870s, architectural fashion turned toward late Victorian styles such as Queen Anne. Italianate Features Italianate homes can be wood-sided or brick, with commercial and public properties often being masonry. The most common Italianate styles will often have many of these characteristics: a low-pitched or flat roof; a balanced, symmetrical rectangular shape; a tall appearance, with two, three, or four stories; wide, overhanging eaves with large brackets and cornices; a square cupola; a porch topped with balustraded balconies; tall, narrow, paired windows, often arched with hood moldings projecting above the windows; a side bay window, often two stories tall; heavily molded double doors; Roman or segmented arches above windows and doors; and rusticated quoins on masonry buildings. Italianate house styles in America can seem like a mix of characteristics from different eras, and sometimes they are. The Italian-inspired Renaissance Revival homes are more palatial but still often confused with the Victorian Italianate style. The French-inspired Second Empire, like houses in the Italianate style, often feature a high, square tower. Beaux Arts buildings are grand and elaborate, often embracing Italianate ideas along with Classical. Even Neo-Mediterranean builders of the 20th century re-visited Italianate themes. Victorian architecture encompasses a variety of popular styles, but ask yourself how picturesque each is. Examples of Italianate Houses Italiante houses can be found across the United States. often tucked away in unexpected places. The Lewis House built in 1871, is on a side road outside Ballston Spa, New York. Not named for the original owner, the Lewis family converted historic home near Saratoga Springs into a Bed Breakfast business. Italianate Lewis House, 1871, Ballston Spa, New York. Jackie Craven In Bloomington, Illinois you can visit Clover Lawn, built in 1872. Also known as the David Davis Mansion, the architecture combines Italianate and Second Empire stylings. David Davis Mansion, 1872, Illinois. Teemu08 via Wikimedia Commons, own work, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-SA 3.0) cropped The Andrew Low House in Savannah, Georgia was built in 1849. This historic house by New York architect John Norris has been described as Italianate, most notably because of its urban garden landscaping. To get the full sense of Italiante details, especially the roof, the observer must step back both physically and in time. Andrew Low House, 1849, Savannah, Georgia. Carol M. Highsmith/Getty Images (cropped) Sources Italianate Architecture and History, Old-House Journal, August 10, 2011, [accessed August 28, 2017]Italianate Villa/Italianate Style 1840 - 1885, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission,  [accessed August 28, 2017]A Field Guide to American Houses by Virginia and Lee McAlester, Knopf, 1984, 2013American Shelter: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Home by Lester Walker, Overlook, 1998American House Styles: A Concise Guide by John Milnes Baker, AIA, Norton, 2002Photo Credits: Clover Lawn, Teemu08 via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0) cropped; Andrew Low House, Carol M. Highsmith/Getty Images (cropped); Lewis House, Jackie CravenCOPYRIGHT: The articles you see on the pages of this website are copyrighted. You may link to them or print them for your own use, but do not copy them into a blog, web page, or print publication without permission.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Can Jurors Ask Questions During Trials

Can Jurors Ask Questions During Trials The trend of jurors asking questions while a trial is going on is becoming more popular in courtrooms across the country. There are some states that now require it by law, including Arizona, Colorado, and Indiana. Many times highly technical testimony may alienate the average juror to the point where they stop paying attention and begin faking that they understand what is being said. Because of this, lawyers have become more reluctant to take cases where they risk verdicts that are derived from uninformed and bored jurors who do not understand the applicable laws. Case studies of trials that have been reviewed have shown that when jurors could ask questions during the trial, there were fewer incidents of verdicts that lacked a sound understanding of the evidence that was presented.​ CEATS Inc. v. Continental Airlines Experimentation has been done to gauge the effectiveness of permitting jurors to ask questions during trial. An example was in the CEATS Inc. v. Continental Airlines trial. Chief Judge Leonard Davis asked jurors to write down questions that they had after each witness testified. Out of earshot of the jury, the lawyers and judge then reviewed each question, which did not identify which jury member asked it. The judge, with attorney input, selected the questions to ask and informed the jurors that the selected questions were decided by him, not the lawyers, to avoid a juror getting insulted or holding a grudge because their question was not selected. The attorneys could then expound on the questions, but were specifically asked not to include the jurors questions during their closing arguments. One of the major concerns of allowing jurors to ask questions was the amount of time it would take to review, select, and answer the questions. According to Alison K. Bennett, MS, in the article Eastern District of Texas Experiments with Jurors Questions During Trial, Judge Davis said that the additional time added about 15 minutes to the testimony of each witness. He also said that the jurors appeared more engaged and invested in the proceedings and that the questions asked showed a level of sophistication and understanding from the jury that was encouraging. The Pros of Allowing Jurors to Ask Questions Most jurors want to render a fair verdict based on their understanding of the testimony. If jurors are unable to obtain all the information that they need to make that decision, they may become frustrated with the process and ignore the evidence and testimony that they could not decipher. By becoming active participants in the courtroom, jurors get a more in-depth understanding of courtroom procedures, are less likely to misunderstand the facts of a case and develop a clearer perspective on which laws apply or do not apply to the case. Jurors questions can also help lawyers get a feel for what they are thinking and can influence how lawyers continue to present their cases. It is also a good tool to reference when preparing for future cases. The Cons of Allowing Jurors to Ask Questions The risks of allowing a jury to ask questions can mostly be controlled by how the procedure is handled, although there are still other problems that may arise. They include: A juror who wants to display their superior understanding of the case or one that talks too much could become taxing and annoying to other jurors as well as add unnecessary time to the trial proceedings. It also puts lawyers and judges at risk if they display signs of fatigue or annoyance with trying to control someone with these characteristics. The fallout could result in the juror feeling alienated and resentful which could have a harmful effect on jury deliberations.A question could be asked that jurors feel essential, but in reality, has little legal significance to the outcome of the trial. Such a question could end up carrying too much weight when jurors begin their deliberations.There is also a risk that the questions not asked by a jury could imply that they do not understand the evidence being presented or realize the significance of the evidence presented. Alternatively, it may mean that they do not have additional questions because they completely understand what has been presented. This could put lawyers at a disadvantage. If the jury does not understand the evidence enough to ask questions, a lawyer may change their strategy and spend more time with testimony that helps explain the evidence. However, if the jury does have a full understanding of the evidence, additional time spent on the same information could be viewed as repetitive and boring and the lawyer risks being audibly muted by jurors. The risk of a witness answering a jurors question that has been rendered inadmissible.Jurors may take the position of being an adversary of a witness rather than being interested in all of the facts of the case.Jurors may rate the importance of testimony if a judge does not elect to ask a witness a jurors question. They may feel it is not important testimony because it was not worthy of additional time spent to review it.A question may be allowed by a judge by mistake and become the reason the verdict is later appealed.Lawyers fear losing control over their case and trial strategy, especially if a question is asked by a juror that lawyers have purposely avoided mentioning during a trial. There is a concern that jurors with questions may decide on their verdict too early. Procedure Determines Success of Jury Questions Most of the problems that could develop from jurors asking questions can be controlled by a strong judge, through careful review of the questions and through using a proactive process through which jurors can submit questions. If the judge is reading the questions, and not the jurors, a garrulous juror can then be controlled. Questions that do not have significant importance to the overall outcome of the trial can be skipped. Questions that appear to appear bias or are argumentative can be reworded or discarded. However, it does give the judge an opportunity to review the importance to jurors of remaining impartial until the trial is over. Cases Studies of Jurors Asking Questions Professor Nancy Marder, director of IIT Chicago-Kents Jury Center and author of the book The Jury Process, researched the effectiveness of juror questions and determined that the justice is fully served when a jury is informed and understands all the mechanisms that go into their role as juror, including testimony given, evidence shown and how laws should or should not be applied. She goes on to emphasize that judges and lawyers can benefit by taking a more jury-centric approach to court proceedings, which means considering questions that jurors may have through the jurors perspective rather through their own. By doing so will improve the performance of the jury as a whole. It can also enable a jury to remain present and focused on what is going on, rather than have them obsess on an unanswered question. Unanswered questions could promote a feeling of apathy towards the remainder of the trial if they fear that they have failed to understand important testimony. Understanding the Dynamics of a Jury In Marders article, Answering Jurors Questions: Next Steps in Illinois, she looks at the pros and cons of several examples of what can happen when jurors are permitted or legally bound to ask questions, and one major point that she mentions is in regards to the dynamics that occur among a jury. She discusses how within groups of jurors there is a tendency for those who failed to understand testimony to look to other jurors who they deem as being better informed. That person ultimately becomes an authority figure in the room. Often their opinions carry more weight and will have more influence over what the jurors decide. When jurors questions are answered, it helps create an environment of equality and each juror can participate and contribute to the deliberations rather than being dictated to by those who appear to have all the answers. If a debate does arise, all jurors can inject their knowledge into the discussion without feeling uninformed. By doing this, jurors are more likely to vote independently, rather than to be overly influenced by a single juror. According to Marders research, the positive results of jurors moving out of passive roles of observers to active roles which allow them to ask questions has far outweighed the more negative concerns of lawyers and judges.​​​